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WH is a consonant digraph. Consonant digraphs are two consonants next to each other that make just one sound. The digraph sound /w/ like in the word whistle, has changed over time and the pronunciation varies with different accents. Sometimes it is pronounced /hw/ but it is now most commonly pronounced /w/, the same as the consonant w.  

Student Objectives

  • Student will make the correlation between the visual wh and the auditory sound /w/

  • Student will decode (read) words with the /w/ sound

  • Student will encode (spell) words with the /w/ sound

  • Student will use adjectives to describe a noun

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Practice Games

Here are some optional fun games to help reinforce the concept your student is learning. They are not required as part of the lesson:


 wh

Introduction Lesson

Review Cards

Sound Cards

Review and Drill – beginning consonant cards, a, i, o, u, e, th, sh, ch

“When I hold up a letter, say the letter’s name, and give its sound.”

“Good job! We are going to learn to read and spell words with the letter team wh today.”  

Step 1

Picture Page

Student Workbook Page 59

Hold up the wh – whistle

Say, “These letters are wh. What are these letters? The h is silent in the letter team wh. You only pronounce the w.”

“The picture card for wh is whistle. Say whistle. Good. When I point to the picture word, say the letter’s name, give its sound, and say the picture word. Watch me as I demonstrate.”  

Say wh, /w/, whistle then have student repeat three times.

“In most words the /w/ sound is simply spelled with the letter w. Question words such as who, what, where, when, why will all need wh. There are a few other words that will use wh too. We will learn these today.”  

Step 2

Phonological Awareness

“Close your eyes. I will say a word. You will repeat the word and listen for the /w/ sound. If you hear /w/, raise your hand. Let’s practice. Say whiz. Do you hear the /w/ sound in whiz? Yes, you hear the /w/ sound in whiz so you raise your hand. Good. Let’s practice some more words.”  

Repeat this activity with:

when, whip, which, whiz, ship, that, whim, thin, shop 

Step 3

Sound Tiles

Use the back cover of the Student Workbook and the blank green and white sound tiles for this activity.

Say, “How many sounds do you hear in the word wham? Yes, you hear three sounds. Repeat the word and bring down a sound tile for each sound you hear. Remember to use white tiles for consonant sounds and green tiles for the vowel sound. Touch each tile and say its sound. Then glide your finger under the tiles and say the whole word fast.”

Repeat this activity with:

whiz, which, when, whim, wham, whip 

Step 4

Red Words

Review and Drill red-checked Red Words on page 156.  

Write the word into on the whiteboard. Say, “This is the word into.

“What is this word? Point to the word. Slide your pointer finger under the word while you read it.” Have student repeat this three times.

“Now, stand up. Spell the word, tapping once for each letter down your arm. Then read the word again while sliding your hand from shoulder to wrist.” Have student repeat this three times.

“Now write the word in a red marker on your whiteboard saying the letters aloud as you write and underline the word as you read it.” Have the student write, read, and underline three times.

“Can you give me the word in a sentence?”

Turn to page 156 and put a red check mark next to the word into

Step 5

Reading

Student Workbook Page 60 – Word List: wh

“Put your finger under the first word. Now, draw a “smile” under the letter team wh. What sound does the wh make? Good. Now read the word.”

Repeat with the remaining words, reading left to right.

Step 6

Sound Dictation

Student Workbook Page 63 – Sounds

“Say /w/. With your finger, write the sound /w/ on your palm. Now pick up your pen and write the sound /w/ on your paper.”

Repeat with:

/ch/, /th/, /ĕ/, //, /sh/, /ĭ/, //, /d/, /w/ 

Have the student go back and read each sound that they have written aloud to you.

Step 7

Word Dictation

Student Workbook Page 63 – Words

“Say whipSpell the word whip by writing the letters on your palm. Now pick up your pen and write the word whip on your paper.”

Repeat with the following words:

when, whip, whit, whet, whim, whiz, which, wham, whiz 

Have the student go back and read each word that they have written aloud to you.

Step 8

Sentence Dictation

Student Workbook Page 63 – Sentences

“Listen carefully as I say a sentence and watch as I make a dash on the board for each word in the sentence.”  

Jen is a whiz kid.

___  ___  ___  ___  ___ .

“Now, you say the sentence as you point to each dash. Now, you fill in each dash with each word from the sentence. Good. Now go back and read the sentence that you just wrote.”

Repeat the above with the following sentence, but this time in the student workbook instead of the whiteboard:

Bob has a whip.

Chex is a whiz in math.

Step 9

Fluency Practice

Student Workbook Page 134 – Fluency Practice 13  

Place a reading marker under the first row. Going across the row, have the student read each word as quickly as they can. Be cautious, as some students will become very anxious if they feel any time pressure. Never push for speed at the cost for accuracy. Accuracy is more important than speed. If the student will tolerate it, have the student do all 15 rows.

Step 10

Word Games

Student Workbook Page 147


Game 9 – Read the Word

Each player places a counter at the START. Roll the die and move across the board. Read each word as you pass over it. 

Ex: If you roll a four, read four words.

If you land on a lion, go back to START. Whoever gets to FINISH first is the winner!


wh

Practice Lesson

Review Cards

Sound Cards

Review and Drill – beginning consonant cards, a, i, o, u, e, th, sh, ch, wh

“When I hold up a letter, say the letter’s name, and give its sound.”

“Great job. We are going to continue reading and spelling words with wh today.”

Step 1

Sky Writing

Hold up wh Sound Card.

“We are now going to Sky Write this sound. Stand up and extend your arm all the way out in front of you. Ready?”

/w/ (Say the sound.)  wh  (Say the letters as you Sky Write.)  /w/  (Underline the sound and say the sound.)

Have student repeat three times.  

Step 2

Phonological Awareness

“Say whip. Say whip again but this time, instead of /p/, say /g/.” (whig)

“Say wham. Say wham again but this time, instead of /m/, say /p/.” (whap)

“Say when. Say when again but this time, instead of /w/, say /t/.” (ten)

“Say kid. Say kid again but this time, instead of /k/, say /w/.” (whid)

“Say whamSay wham again but this time, instead of /w/, say /b/.” (bam)

“Say bop. Say bop again but this time, instead of /b/, say /w/.” (whop) 

Step 3

Letter Tiles

“Say whiz. Bring down the letters for each sound in whiz. Read the word again. Now put all the letters back where they belong.”

Repeat with:

when, whip, which, whim, whig, wham  

Step 4

Red Words

Review and Drill red-checked Red Words on page 156.  

Write the word put on the whiteboard. Say, “This is the word put.

“What is this word? Point to the word. Slide your pointer finger under the word while you read it.” Have student repeat this three times.

“Now, stand up. Spell the word, tapping once for each letter down your arm. Then read the word again while sliding your hand from shoulder to wrist.” Have student repeat this three times.

“Now write the word in a red marker on your whiteboard saying the letters aloud as you write and underline the word as you read it.” Have the student write, read, and underline three times.

“Can you give me the word in a sentence?”

Turn to page 156 and put a red check mark next to the word put.  

Step 5

Reading

Student Workbook Page 60 – Sentences: wh

Look at the first sentence.”

1.  I can go when it is done.

Put your finger under the first word in the sentence. Now read the sentence quietly in your head and look at me when you are finished and I will ask you a question.”

When the student looks up at you, ask:

“What can I do when it is done?” (go)

“Good. Now go back and read the sentence out loud.”

 

Repeat with:

2.  Chad is a whiz kid. 

“Is Chad a whiz kid?” (yes)

3.  The man hid the whip by the ship.

“Where did the man hide the whip?” (by the ship)

4.  He got in the bath when it was hot.

“What was hot?” (water in the bath)

5.  It hit the bat with a wham.

“What do you think hit the bat?” (answers will vary)

6.  Beth is a whiz in math.

“What does it mean to be a whiz at something?” (really good)

7.  The whip is in the shed.

“Where is the whip?” (in the shed)

8.  I got the sash when I was mad. 

“When did I get the sash?” (when I was mad)

9.  The moth hit the path with a wham.

“Were did the moth land?” (on the path)

10.  The dog ran when I ran.

“What animal ran?” (the dog)

Step 6

Sound Dictation

Student Workbook Page 64 – Sounds

“Say /w/. With your finger, write the sound /w/ on your palm. Now pick up your pen and write the sound /w/ on your paper. From now on whenever I dictate the sound /wh/ you will write both w and wh.”

Repeat with:

/ch/, /th/, /sh/, //, /ĕ/, /ĭ /, /ŭ/, /s/, /w/

Have the student go back and read each sound that they have written aloud to you. 

Step 7

Word Dictation

Student Workbook Page 64 – Words

“Say wham. Spell the word wham by writing the letters on your palm. Now pick up your pen and write the word wham on your paper.”

Repeat with:

when, which, cash, math, that, much, shut, shop, whiz 

Have the student go back and read each word that they have written aloud to you. 

Step 8

Sentence Dictation

Student Workbook Page 64 – Sentences

“Listen carefully as I say a sentence and watch as I make a dash on the board for each word in the sentence.”  

I can run when it is hot.

___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___ .

“Now, you say the sentence as you point to each dash. Now, you fill in each dash with each word from the sentence. Good. Now go back and read the sentence that you just wrote.”

Repeat the above with the following sentences, but this time in the student workbook instead of the whiteboard:

The whip is in the shed.

He is a whiz in math. 

Step 9

Fluency Practice

Student Workbook Page 134 – Fluency Practice 13  

Place a reading marker under the first row. Going across the row, have the student read each word as quickly as they can. Be cautious, as some students will become very anxious if they feel any time pressure. Never push for speed at the cost for accuracy. Accuracy is more important than speed. If the student will tolerate it, have the student do all 15 rows. 

Grammar Lesson

Adjectives

Say, “What is a noun?” (a person, place, or thing)

Say, “A noun names, but it doesn’t give you a description of the person, place, or thing it names. For example, if I say flower to you, you don’t know whether the flower is pink or blue, tall or short, smelly or pretty. You can’t make a picture of it in your mind. If I want to tell you more about this flower, I have to use other words to describe it. I have to use adjectives. An adjective is a word that describes a noun.”

On the whiteboard, write the word hot 

Say, “The word hot is an adjective. Which noun could it describe?”

(chocolate, sun, coffee, etc.) Encourage student to give three or four examples.

Say, “I am going to say an adjective and you are going to say a noun that it could describe.” 

red, old, happy, round, cold, curly, sour, huge, loud, sweet, fuzzy, small, sticky, etc.

Say, “Now I am going to describe a noun. You are going to think of every adjective that can possibly tell me more about this noun.”  

Choose something in the room (a person or thing). Point to it and help the student find adjectives to describe it. 


wh

Reinforcement Lesson

Review Cards

Sound Cards

Review and Drill – beginning consonant cards, a, i, o, u, e, th, sh ch, wh

“When I hold up a letter, say the letter’s name, and give its sound.”

“Great job! We are going to continue reading and spelling words with wh today.” 

Step 1

Blending Drill

Place Sound Cards into three stacks: 

First Stack – ( wh )

Second Stack – ( a, e, i, o, u )

Third Stack – ( b, d, m, n, p, t, x )

Have student place their finger under each stack and say the sound out loud from left to right. Then have them read the nonsense word. 

Turn the cards from the Second Stack and the Third Stack to create new nonsense words.

Step 2

Phonological Awareness

Write the word which on the whiteboard. “What is this word?”

“What letter says //?”

“What letters say /w/?”

“What letters say /ch/?”

“What do the letters wh say?”

“What does the lettersay?”

“What do the letters ch say?”

“Say which. Say which again, but change the /ch/ to /z/.” (whiz) 

Step 3

Letter Tiles

“Say when. Bring down the letters for each sound in when. Read the word again. Now put all the letters back where they belong.”  

Repeat this activity with:

when, path, such, this, which, whiz, chap, shop, chip 

Step 4

Red Words

Review and Drill red-checked Red Words on page 156.  

Write the word how on the whiteboard. Say, “This is the word how.

“What is this word? Point to the word. Slide your pointer finger under the word while you read it.” Have student repeat this three times.

“Now, stand up. Spell the word, tapping once for each letter down your arm. Then read the word again while sliding your hand from shoulder to wrist.” Have student repeat this three times.

“Now write the word in a red marker on your whiteboard saying the letters aloud as you write and underline the word as you read it.” Have the student write, read, and underline three times.

“Can you give me the word in a sentence?”

Turn to page 156 and put a red check mark next to the word how.  

Step 5

Reading

Student Workbook Page 61 – Reading Passage: Whin Gets a Shot

Look at the title of this story. Can you read it out loud? What do you know about the topic of this story?” Have you ever seen, known, or been…Help student connect to the text.

“Now, read the first paragraph quietly in your head and look at me when you are finished and I will ask you a question.” When the student looks up at you, ask “Why is Whin mad?” (she doesn’t want to get a shot)

“Now, read the next paragraph quietly in your head and look at me when you are finished and I will ask you a question.” When the student looks up at you, ask “How does Beth get Whin in the van.” (Beth begs Whin to get in the van)

“Now, read the last paragraph quietly in your head and look at me when you are finished and I will ask you a question.” When the student looks up at you, ask “Does the shot hurt Whin?” (no, the shot is not bad)

Go back to the beginning of the story and have the student read the entire story from the beginning to the end out loud.

 

Student Workbook Page 62 – Graphic Organizer

Have the student verbally express what happens at the beginning, middle, and the end of the story. Help student summarize the story. Then have the student fill out the graphic organizer with a pen. Depending on the student, either have him draw pictures, write words, write sentences, or write an entire paragraph.  

Step 6

Sound Dictation

Student Workbook Page 65 – Sounds

“Say /w/. With your finger, write the sound /w/ on your palm. Now pick up your pen and write the sound /w/ on your paper.”

Repeat with:

 /sh/, /th/, /g/, /ĭ/, /j/, /ă/, /ch/, /ĕ/, /v/, /w/

Have the student go back and read each sound that they have written aloud to you.

Step 7

Word Dictation

Student Workbook Page 65 – Words

“Say which. Spell the word which by writing the letters on your palm. Now pick up your pen and write the word which on your paper.”

Repeat with the following words:

when, whiz, chin, rich, whip, rush, this, mash, chop

Have the student go back and read each word that they have written aloud to you.

Step 8

Sentence Dictation

Student Workbook Page 65 – Sentences

“Listen carefully as I say a sentence and watch as I make a dash on the board for each word in the sentence.”  

I get hot when I hop.

___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___ .

“Now, you say the sentence as you point to each dash. Now, you fill in each dash with each word from the sentence. Good. Now go back and read the sentence that you just wrote.”

Repeat the above with the following sentences, but this time in the student workbook instead of the whiteboard:

Chad is a whiz in math.

Jan can chat when she runs.

Step 9

Fluency Practice

Student Workbook Page 134 – Fluency Practice 13

Place a reading marker under the first row. Going across the row, have the student read each word as quickly as they can. Be cautious, as some students will become very anxious if they feel any time pressure. Never push for speed at the cost for accuracy. Accuracy is more important than speed. If the student will tolerate it, have the student do all 15 rows.

 It is time for a Progress Check!

Student Workbook Page 118 – Progress Check: wh

Have your student read the words and sentences out loud. If they get approximately 80% or more correct, then they are ready to move onto the next unit.